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2017年MBA英语真题及答案解析

2017-06-05 10:13:17 来源:万题库44

 2017年MBA英语真题及答案解析:

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  People have speculated for centuries about a future without work .Today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again_____(1)that technology be replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by_____(2)A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland.

  A different and not mutually exclusive_____(3)holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one_____(4)by purposelessness: Without jobs to give their lives_____(5), people will simply become lazy and depressed._____(6),today's unemployed don't seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for_____(7)Americans. Also, some research suggests that the_____(8)for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addicting_____(9)poorly-educated middle-aged people is shortage of well-paid jobs. Perhaps this is why many_____(10)the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.

  But it doesn't_____(11)follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with unease. Such visions are based on the_____(12)of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment. In the_____(13)of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could_____(14)strikingly different circumstanced for the future of labor and leisure. Today, the_____(15)of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a waste of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway.

  These days, because leisure time is relatively_____(16)for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional_____(17)of their jobs. “When I come home from a hard day's work, I often feel_____(18)," Danaher says, adding, "In a world in which I don't have to work, I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself_____(19)a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for_____(20)matters.

  1.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.boasting

  B.denying

  C.warning

  D.ensuring

  【答案】C

  【解析】空格之后的宾语从句部分“technology is replacing human workers.”结合选项,应该选择warning。其他三项[A] boasting [B] denying [D] ensuring均不符合此处的语境要求,故均排除。

  2.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.inequality

  B.instability

  C.unreliability

  D.uncertainty

  【答案】A

  【解析】空格单词后面的句意看到了贫富对比,故作为上文对其进行概括关键应选择inequality。

  3.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.policy

  B.guideline

  C.resolution

  D.prediction

  【答案】D

  【解析】空格之后的内容“holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort,”该定语从句是对空格词汇的修饰与说明,既然文中用到了will 这一个表示将来时态的助动词,故答案为prediction。

  4.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.characterized

  B.divided

  C.balanced

  D.measured

  【答案】A

  【解析】one_____(4)by purposelessness。其他三项均不符合,故排除。

  5.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.wisdom

  B.meaning

  C.glory

  D.freedom

  【答案】B

  【解析】空格所在句后面的表述与空格前的内容属于并列关系,由逗号连接。答案选择meaning。[A] wisdom[C] glory[D] freedom这些选项都表示褒义色彩和后面 lazy、depressed 矛盾。

  6.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.Instead

  B.Indeed

  C.Thus

  D.Nevertheless

  【答案】B

  【解析】分析下四个选项可以看出并无体现因果关系,故[A] Thus排除,另外instead,nevertheless 表示转折语意,但是上下文逻辑并无体现。故[A]Instead[C] Thus [D] Nevertheless均排除。

  7.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.rich

  B.urban

  C.working

  D.educated

  【答案】C

  【解析】One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for 7 Americans. 根据上下文对比的语意对照应该选择working。前面提到unemployed此处在进行对比,故选择表示反义呼应的词working。   8.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.explanation

  B.requirement

  C.compensation

  D.substitute

  【答案】A

  【解析】some research suggests that the_____(8)for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addicting_____(9)poorly-educated middle-aged people is shortage of well-paid jobs.

  9.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.under

  B.beyond

  C.alongside

  D.among

  【答案】D

  【解析】很明显应该指前者的发生范围。浏览四个选项,among“在....中”表示范围,符合此处语义需要,故为答案。

  10.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.leave behind

  B.make up

  C.worry about

  D.set aside

  【答案】C

  【解析】Perhaps this is why many_____(10)the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.

  11.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.statistically

  B.occasionally

  C.necessarily

  D.economically

  【答案】C

  【解析】But表示转折语意。doesn't necessarily不一定。符合此处语意需要,故为答案。

  12.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.chances

  B.downsides

  C.benefits

  D.principles

  【答案】B

  【解析】答案的线索在于空格后面的介词短语,后面提到being unemployed。这是贬义。其他选项均不符条件。

  13.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.absence

  B.height

  C.face

  D.course

  【答案】A

  【解析】In the_____(13)of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could14 strikingly different circumstances for the future of labor and leisure.

  14.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.disturb

  B.restore

  C.exclude

  D.yield

  【答案】D

  【解析】该空格所选词汇的主语是a society 宾语是different circumstances.根据主谓一致的原则应该选择yield。语义为:产生。

  15.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.model

  B.practice

  C.virtue

  D.hardship

  【答案】C

  【解析】overblown.一词为解题线索。含义:吹散 吹倒 表贬义。后面的内容Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a waste of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway.是对这句话的进一步解释,结合前后的上下文语义理解,应选择virtue,其他选项均排除。

  16.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.tricky

  B.lengthy

  C.mysterious

  D.scarce

  【答案】D

  【解析】because leisure time is relatively_____(16)for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional_____(17)of their jobs. 结合常识认知及上下文理解应该选择scarce。

  17.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.demands

  B.standards

  C.qualities

  D.threats

  【答案】A

  【解析】根据语义的要求,浏览选项,只有demands符合语义要求。

  18.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.ignored

  B.tired

  C.confused

  D.starved

  【答案】B

  【解析】上下文语义理解+常识

  "When I come home from a hard day's work, I often feel_____(18)," Danaher says, adding, "In a world in which I don't have to work, I might feel rather different".

  19.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.off

  B.against

  C.behind

  D.into

  【答案】D

  【解析】“Throw oneself into ......”意思是:一头扎进;投身于,积极从事。

  20.【题干】_____

  【选项】

  A.technological

  B.professional

  C.educational

  D.interpersonal

  【答案】B

  【解析】此处空格处答案和前面的intensity形成呼应与关联。故此处professional符合语义需要,入选。

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  Every Saturday morning, at 9 am, more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Parkrun phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers. Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from Andrew Baddeley's world record 13 minutes 48 seconds up to an hour.

  Parkrun is succeeding where London's Olympic "legacy" is failing. Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Games would be to level a nation of sport lovers away from their couches. The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2 million in the run-up to 2012-but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved. Obesity has risen among adults and children. Official retrospections continue as to why London 2012 failed to "inspire a generation." The success of Parkrun offers answers.

  Parkun is not a race but a time trial: Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining. The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sports and to produce more elite athletes. The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers.

  Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally "grassroots", concept as community sports associations. If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods-making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. Or at least not make them worse.

  21.【题干】According to Paragraph1, Parkrun has_____.

  【选项】

  A.gained great popularity

  B.created many jobs

  C.strengthened community ties

  D.become an official festival

  【答案】A

  【解析】由题干中的关键词According to Paragraph 1, 可以快速的定位到文中的第一段,第一段讲了每周六大约有五万多人都会在他们当地的公园里跑步,跑步的年龄跨度之大:从4岁的小朋友到祖父母年纪的人都有;跑步所用的时间跨度也很大:从世界纪录的13分48秒到一个小时。由此可见,这是一个全****动,与A选项的 great popularity相互对应,所以选A. 其他选项,B创造了很多就业机会;C增强了社会的凝聚力;D成为一个官方的节日;这几个选项原文中都没有涉及,所以排除。

  22.【题干】The author believes that London's Olympic "legacy" has failed to_____.

  【选项】

  A.boost population growth

  B.promote sport participation

  C.improve the city's image

  D.increase sport hours in schools

  【答案】B

  【解析】可以发现原文中第二段第一句话Parkrun is succeeding where London’s Olympic “legacy” is failing与题干中的关键词London's Olympic “legacy” has failed to...对应,所以可以锁定文章的第二段,从而找出解题的关键。第二段前半部分讲了在最初的时候Olympic的目标,然而,事实却事与愿违,...but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. 由这句话可以看出,Olympic并没有推动大众的参与性,与预期的目标不符,所以选择B。

  23.【题干】Parkrun is different from Olympic games in that it_____.

  【选项】

  A.aims at discovering talents

  B.focuses on mass competition

  C.does not emphasize elitism

  D.does not attract first-timers

  【答案】C

  【解析】由题干中的关键词Parkrun is different from Olympic games in that...可以知道这是想考察Parkrun和Olympic的区别。追溯到原文,可以看到文中的第三段第一句话:Parkrun is not a race but a time trial.从这句话可以排除A和B,因为A和B都和竞争有关,D选项可以从这一段的这一句话:there is much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is ...可知,Parkrun有很多第一次参加的人,所以排除D. 最后可以知道,答案选C,因为parkrun不是比赛,所以就不重视精英主义。

  24.【题干】With regard to mass sport, the author holds that governments should_____.

  【选项】

  A.organize "grassroots" sports events

  B.supervise local sports associations

  C.increase funds for sports clubs

  D.invest in public sports facilities

  【答案】D

  【解析】由题干中的关键词the governments should...,可以知道,命题人想要考察的是对于Parkrun这一项大众运动,政府应该做点什么。所以,考生要快速的定位到原文中有关政府的段落,即第四段,If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods—making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. 从这里可以知道,作者希望政府能够为Parkrun提供场所和钱,并针对学校制定相关条例以鼓励全****动。由此可以排除A,B,C.最终选择D。

  25.【题干】The author's attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is_____.

  【选项】

  A.tolerant

  B.critical

  C.uncertain

  D.sympathetic

  【答案】B

  【解析】由题干中的关键词the author’s attitude to what UK government have done for sport可以再次锁定原文中关于政府的部分,可见这一题与24题是有一定联系的。第四段一开始作者提出了自己对政府的期许,但是事实上,政府却没有达到这一期许。But successive government have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. 政府负责卖地,从地方政府压榨金钱,不重视学校的体育运动。可见,此处作者指责政府的一系列行为,由此可以得出答案B. tolerant:宽容的,容忍的; uncertain:含糊的,不确定的;sympathetic:同情的,赞同的。

  Text 2

  With so much focus on children's use of screens, it's easy for parents to forget about their own screen use. "Tech is designed to really suck on you in," says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, "and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine."

  Radesky has studied the use of mobile phones and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. During a separate observation, she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention.

  Infants are wired to look at parents' faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive—as they often are when absorbed in a device-it can be extremely disconcerting foe the children. Radesky cites the "still face experiment" devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s. In it, a mother is asked to interact with her child in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback; The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother's attention. "Parents don't have to be exquisitely parents at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need," says Radesky.

  On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids' use of screens are born out of an "oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting" with their children: "It's based on a somewhat fantasized, very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you're failing to expose your child to 30,000 words you are neglecting them." Tronick believes that just because a child isn't learning from the screen doesn't mean there's no value to it-particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way. This can make them feel happier, which lets then be more available to their child the rest of the time.

  26.【题干】According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to ______.

  【选项】

  A.simplify routine matters

  B.absorb user attention

  C.better interpersonal relations

  D.increase work efficiency

  【答案】B

  【解析】由题干中的关键词Jenny Radesky, 可以快速的定位到文中提到此人物的第一段第二行,接着题干中说digital products are designed to..可以知道,考查的是数码产品的目的,回归到文中第一段第二行,可知Jenny Radesky说了这样一句话:Tech is designed to really suck on you in, and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement....电子产品就是为了促进最大程度的参与性,由此可以得出答案B为了吸引用户的注意力。其余选项在Jenny Radesky的话中都没有体现。

  27.【题干】Radesky's food-testing exercise shows that mothers' use of devices ______.

  【选项】

  A.takes away babies' appetite

  B.distracts children's attention

  C.slows down babies' verbal development

  D.reduces mother-child communication

  【答案】D

  【解析】由题干中的关键词food-testing exercise, mother’s use of devices. 可以快速的定位到第二段第二行:She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. 从这里可以知道,母亲使用手机会减少20%的语言交流机会,39%的非语言交流。由此可以得出答案为D.减少了母亲和孩子之间的交流。

  28.【题干】Radesky's cites the "still face experiment" to show that _______.

  【选项】

  A.it is easy for children to get used to blank expressions

  B.verbal expressions are unnecessary for emotional exchange

  C.children are insensitive to changes in their parents' mood

  D.parents need to respond to children's emotional needs

  【答案】D

  【解析】本题目是具体细节题。题干中的关键词Radesky和still face experiment定位到倒数第三段大写R处,题目问实验一定要找实验结论,结论在本段最后一句的but之后,这里提到了parents need be to responsive ...to...emotional need,父母需要对情感需求做出回应。正确答案D是原文的原词复现。干扰项A的blank expressions是原文实验里面的具体内容,非实验表明;选项B是最后一句的个别词干扰;选项C偷换概念,不是children are insensitive,而是parents。

  29.【题干】The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to_______.

  【选项】

  A.protect kids from exposure to wild fantasies

  B.teach their kids at least 30,000 words a year

  C.ensure constant interaction with their children

  D.remain concerned about kid's use of screens

  【答案】C

  【解析】本题目为具体细节题。根据题干的关键词oppressive ideology和大写字母Tronick定位到最后一段的第一句话that之后。本句that后的demands对应题干的requires,说道“父母应该总是要交流”。正确选项C的constant interaction对应原文的always interacting。干扰项A的fantasies是定位句下一句中的个别词干扰;选项B的30000words同样是定位句之后的句子中提到的,而且是if的一个条件句;选项D的concerned是末段首句的concerned,但是偷换概念。

  30.【题干】According to Tronick, kid's use of screens may_______.

  【选项】

  A.give their parents some free time

  B.make their parents more creative

  C.help them with their homework

  D.help them become more attentive

  【答案】A

  【解析】本题目为文中人物观点的细节题。根据题干中的大写字母Tronick及关键词kid定位到最后一段的倒数第三句,破折号后面解释了kid’s use of screens的具体目的。“it gives parents time to...”与正确选项A完全一致,属于原文的原词复现。干扰项B的creative并未提及;选项C的homework根据原文的housework进行干扰,原文是父母有时间做家务,而选项是帮助孩子做作业;选项D的attentive并未提及。

  Text 3

  Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often causes students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn't it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn't feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn't academic.

  But while this may be true, it's not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There's always a constant fear of falling behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated "race to the finish line," whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits-in fact, it probably enhances it.

  Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes-all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.

  If you're not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.

  31.【题干】One of the reasons for high-school graduates not taking a gap year is that_____.

  【选项】

  A.they think it academically misleading

  B.they have a lot of fun to expect in college

  C.it feels strange to do differently from others

  D.it seems worthless to take off-campus courses

  【答案】C

  【解析】题目问的是高中毕业生不选择间隔年原因之一是什么。根据题目中的high-school和gap year和定位到第一段第一句话。这句话后面一句的after all可以知道后面应该是解释理由了,After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn't it?这句话是说如果大家秋天都上大学去了,你要是晚了一年看起来有点傻。这个句子等同于C选项中的feel strange to do differently from others,因此选C。

  32.【题干】Studies from the US and Australia imply that taking a gap year helps_____.

  【选项】

  A.keep students from being unrealistic

  B.lower risks in choosing careers

  C.ease freshmen's financial burdens

  D.relieve freshmen of pressures

  【答案】D

  【解析】根据题目中的study from the Australia and US可以定位到第三段第一句话Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not.。这句话明确说了有间隔年的学生比没有的要好,好在准备和表现上。所以A:unrealistic和B:choosing career不对。第二句在表现好的更细致地方面进行了描述:preparing them for independence独立性, new responsibilities责任感 and environmental changes环境变化。紧随的破折号后总结说了这是 first-year students一年级学生 often struggle with the most常常有苦恼的。说明最受益的是大学一年级学生,而整段都没提过financial burdens,所以C不对。而D中的pressure是对前面内容的概括性描述,因此答案是D。

  33.【题干】The word "acclimation" (Line 8, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to_____.

  【选项】

  A.adaptation

  B.application

  C.motivation

  D.competition

  【答案】A

  【解析】这题根据题干中给的信息,到第三段最后一句中去找答案,Gap year experiences can...when it comes to adjusting to college..., making it easier to...rather than acclimation blunders.这个句子分两部分,逗号+making分词作状语,从功能上是解释补充说明前面半句,所以间隔年的好处是能帮助新生调节适应大学,而不用担心acclimation 问题,所以acclimation当然就是适应的意思了。因此A为正确答案。

  34.【题干】A gap year may save money for students by helping them_____.

  【选项】

  A.avoid academic failures

  B.establish long-term goals

  C.switch to another college

  D.decide on the right major

  【答案】D

  【解析】文章最后一段第一句提到了consider its financial impact on future academic choices。Financial 对应题干中的save money,而academic choices学术选择可以排除A和B。根据最后一段第三句...students...listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes.所以第一句中的academic choices指的就是转专业的事儿,因此选D。

  35.【题干】The most suitable title for this text would be_____.

  【选项】

  A.In Favor of the Gap Year

  B.The ABCs of the Gap Year

  C.The Gap Year Comes Back

  D.The Gap Year: A Dilemma

  【答案】A

  【解析】第二段第一句话But while this may be true, it's not a good enough reason to condemn gap years.就用but句说明了全文就是想说间隔年你值得拥有。而选项中只有A选项in favor of是持正面积极态度的,因此选A。

  Text 4

  Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.

  In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires-nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency's other work-such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep-that affect the lives of all Americans.

  Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts. As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?

  "It's already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country," he says. We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, "Wait a minute, is this OK?" "Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?"

  Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say.

  For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive. Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change-how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.

  While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn't come at the expense of the rest of the equation.

  "The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways," he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to "an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited."

  At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado. But acknowledging fire's inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.

  "We've disconnected ourselves from living with fire," Balch says. "It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today."

  36.【题干】More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they_____.

  【选项】

  A.exhausted unprecedented management efforts

  B.consumed a record-high percentage of budget

  C.severely damaged the ecology of western states

  D.caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure

  【答案】B

  【解析】本题目是原因细节题。根据题干的关键词wildfires和national concern,以及时间词2015,定位到第二段首句。本句提到US花费了大量的budget,与选项B中的budget原词复现,high是原文more than的同义转化,consume同义替换原文spent。干扰项A的management是首段末句的人物Max Moritz的职位;选项C的western states是首段首句的though从句内容,和题干无关,属于答非所问;选项D的infrastructure是原文末尾的破折号里such as的内容,两个破折号里面一定不选。

  37.【题干】Moritz calls for the use of "a magnifying glass" to _____.

  【选项】

  A.raise more funds for fire-prone areas

  B.avoid the redirection of federal money

  C.find wildfire-free parts of the landscape

  D.guarantee safer spending of public funds

  【答案】D

  【解析】本题目为具体细节题。根据题干的关键词a magnifying glass和大写字母Moritz定位到第四段第二句,目的就是最后一句。本句提到“to redirect those funds”,基金重新引导,本段首句也提及a huge problem from...public expenditure。正确答案D的guarantee safer spending是对这两句的完全概括,讨论公共基金更好的花费问题。干扰项A提到fund,但未说raise more,添加无关内容;选项B与原文刚好相反,不是avoid避免;选项C是对原文lower-hazard parts of the landscape的偷换概念。

  38.【题干】While admitting that climate is a key element, Moritz notes that _____.

  【选项】

  A.public debates have not settled yet

  B.fire-fighting conditions are improving

  C.other factors should not be overlooked

  D.a shift in the view of fire has taken place

  【答案】C

  【解析】本题是文中人物观点的细节题。根据题干的关键词climate is a key element及大写字母Moritz定位到第7段的内容。本句中Moritz提到“should not come at the expense of the equation”,不以平等的代价而来。正确答案A中的不应该忽视其他因素是对本句的同义转化与概括。干扰项A的public debates来自第6段的the focus但未提及settle的话题,也非本题定位句;干扰项B的conditions是第6段的最后一句conditions that worsen fires,偷换动词worsen与improving;选项D的a shift in the view of是出现在第五段,时态错误,原文是would require,选项是has taken place。

  39.【题干】The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to _____.

  【选项】

  A.discover the fundamental makeup of nature

  B.explore the mechanism of the human systems

  C.maximize the role of landscape in human life

  D.understand the interrelations of man and nature

  【答案】D

  【解析】本题目为原因细节题。根据题干关键词simplified view Moritz定位到第8段的首句,“the human systems and the landscapes... are linked and the interactions go both ways”,人类与环境是相联系的,并且是相互作用的。正确答案D的interactions是原文的原词复现,man and nature同义替换原文的human... and landscapes。干扰项A原文未提及;选项B的human systems是原词,但是并无mechanism偷换概念;选项C的landscape和human是原词出现,但添加无关信息maximize。

  40.【题干】Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should _____.

  【选项】

  A.do away with

  B.come to terms with

  C.pay a price for

  D.keep away from

  【答案】B

  【解析】本题目为文中人物观点的细节题。根据题干的大写字母Professor Balch和fire,man定位到最后一段的最后一句,“important to understand...human connection with fire”,人与火之间的联系。正确答案B的意思是达成协议,符合原文。干扰项A的do away with是废除;选项C的pay a price for是付出代价;选项D的keep away from远离。

  Part B

  Directions:

  Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump. "We don't make anything anymore," he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line.

  Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing.

  But there is also a different way to look at the data.

  Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few. Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years. Millennials may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay.

  For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers-and upward pressure on wages. "They're harder to find and they have job offers," says Jay Dunwell, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, "They may be coming [into the workforce], but they've been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing," Mr. Dunwell has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture.

  At RoMan Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year. Mr. Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years.

  At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he's trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors. It's his first week on the job. Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering. "I love working with tools. I love creating." he says.

  But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory. Millennials "remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession," says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan.

  These concerns aren't misplaced: Employment in manufacturing has fallen from 17 million in 1970 to 12 million in 2013. When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades. Now shortages are appearing at the mid-skill levels.

  "The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill," says Rob Spohr, a business professor at Montcalm Community College. "There're enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don't need to have much skill. It's that gap in between, and that's where the problem is."

  Julie Parks of Grand Rapids Community points to another key to luring Millennials into manufacturing: a work/life balance. While their parents were content to work long hours, young people value flexibility. "Overtime is not attractive to this generation. They really want to live their lives," she says.

  41.【题干】Jay Deuwell_____

  【选项】

  A.says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools.

  B.points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don't need much skill. C.points out that the US doesn't manufacture anything anymore.

  D.believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers.

  E.says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition.

  F.points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing.

  G.says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people's parents.

  【答案】E

  【解析】根据题干人名Jay 定位文中“They’re harder to find and they have job offers,”他们很难发现他们有工作邀请。harder对应选项 stiff(艰难地)。

  42.【题干】Jason Stenquist_____

  【选项】

  A.says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools.

  B.points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don't need much skill. C.points out that the US doesn't manufacture anything anymore.

  D.believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers.

  E.says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition.

  F.points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing.

  G.says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people's parents.

  【答案】A

  【解析】根据题干人名Jason Stenquist对应文中“I love working with tools. I love creating,” he says.我爱与工具打交道,我喜欢创新,tool对应选项tool.

  43.【题干】Birgit Klohs_____

  【选项】

  A.says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools.

  B.points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don't need much skill. C.points out that the US doesn't manufacture anything anymore.

  D.believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers.

  E.says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition.

  F.points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing.

  G.says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people's parents.

  【答案】G

  【解析】根据题干人名Birgit Klohs, 定位文中“remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession,”记住他们的爸爸妈妈都下岗了,他们归因于生产萧条。文中blame对应选项blame

  44.【题干】Rob Spohr_____

  【选项】

  A.says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools.

  B.points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don't need much skill. C.points out that the US doesn't manufacture anything anymore.

  D.believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers.

  E.says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition.

  F.points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing.

  G.says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people's parents.

  【答案】B

  【解析】根据人名Rob Spohr,对应文中 The gap is between the jobs that take no skills and those that require a lot of skill,” says Rob Spohr, 工作之间的差距是那个不需要技能,而那些需要很多技能。文中skill对应选项skill(技能)。

  45.【题干】Julie Parks_____

  【选项】

  A.says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools.

  B.points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don't need much skill. C.points out that the US doesn't manufacture anything anymore.

  D.believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers.

  E.says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition.

  F.points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing.

  G.says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people's parents.

  【答案】F

  【解析】题干问Julie的观点,对应文中“We’ve never had so much attention from manufacturers.”我从没有得到过这么多来自制造商的注意,attraction对应选项attract(吸引)

  Section III Translation

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  46.【题干】My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing. Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course. However, during that course I realised that I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me. Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities. But, to be absolutely honest, I said it, because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream-I knew that no one, apart from myself, could imagine me in the fashion industry at all!

  【答案】我的梦想

  我的梦想一直是在时装设计和出版领域找寻一份工作。在我中学毕业的两年前,我选修了一门“缝纫和设计”课程,并且以为我能再继续学习一个时装设计的课程。然而,就在这个课程的学习过程中,我意识到,将来在这个领域,我是无法与那些富于创新精神的精英们相比的。于是,我断定这条路行不通。在申请上大学之前,我对所有人都讲,我想学新闻学,因为,写作曾经是并且现在也一直是我最喜欢的事情之一。但是,说实话,我之所以这样说,是因为我认为从事时装设计不过是我的一个梦想,我也知道,除了我之外,没有人能想象出我会从事时装设计的工作。

  Section IV Writing

  Part A

  47.【题干】Directions:

  Suppose you are invited by Professor Williams to give a presentation about Chinese culture to a group of international students. Write a reply to

  1) Accept the invitation, and

  2) Introduce the key points of your presentation.

  You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

  Do not use your own name. Use “Li Ming”instead.

  Do not write your address. (10points).

  【答案】Dear Professor Williams,

  I feel really delighted and honored to be invited by you to give a presentation to the foreign students, and I will certainly be careful to prepare for the making of it.

  To let the overseas students know much about our Chinese culture, I think that my presentation is supposed to include at least two key points. On the one hand, I will put much stress on the history of China. You must know that our China is an ancient country with a pretty long history. On the other hand, my second strong point should be put on the main diet in China. The reason is that Chinese people in different regions have totally different inclination to choose food and Chinese food everywhere is quite delicious.

  Those two points are what I would like to emphasize, and I would like to know of your opinions on this and I wish you could give me some further ideas on it. I am looking forward to your reply. Thank you.

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  【解析】

  48.【题干】Directions: Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should

  1) interpret the chart, and

  2) give your comments.

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET (15 points)

  【答案】The chart shows great changes in the number of museums and their visitors during the period from 2013 to 2015. According to the data given, what we cannot fail to see is that there is a sharp growth in the amounts of museums from 4165 to 4697 over the period from 2013 to 2015, while it is also pronounced that the number of their visitors increased sharply from 637.8 million to 781.1 million during this period.

  At least two fundamental factors could be identified to contribute to this phenomenon. To begin with, it is widely admitted that with the rapid economic development in the whole social climate has been the dramatically upgraded living standard, which results in the common phenomenon that people in growing numbers can afford the once-deemed-expensive experience. In addition, there is no denying that the authorities concerned have issued a series of preferential policies to protect and promote the development of cultural industry, which encourages a widespread extension of visitors.

  From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that this trend will certainly maintain for quite a while in the near future, which will be of great benefits to our country and individual as well.

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